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NEET Syllabus Simplified: Molecular Basis of Inheritance



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Hello and welcome to the next article in our NEET Simplified series! This blog will explore the exciting field of the “Molecular Basis of Inheritance.” Understanding the processes through which genetic information is transferred from one generation to the next is an important aspect of biology. We’ll simplify difficult ideas into smaller sections to make it simpler for prospective medical students to understand and perform well on their NEET exams.

1. DNA: The Life’s Pattern 

The fundamental component of the Molecular Basis of Genetics is deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) are the four nitrogenous bases that make up the double-stranded molecule of DNA. These nucleotides combine to produce the well-known DNA double helix’ base pairs, A-T and C-G.

The genetic code that determines an individual’s features and characteristics is carried by DNA, which is found in the cell’s nucleus. DNA replicates during cell division, ensuring that each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the genetic material.

2. Units of Inheritance: Genes 

Genes are unique pieces of DNA that code for proteins and regulate a variety of biological processes. They serve as units of heredity, transferring particular characteristics from parents to children. Genetic variety originates through alterations, which are changes in the DNA sequence that can happen naturally or as a result of environmental events.

3. Synthesis of Proteins and Replication 

Cell division and inheritance depend on the DNA replication mechanism. It entails the double molecule of DNA being unwound and the creation of two new complementary strands, each of which acts as a template for the other.

On the other hand, protein synthesis is the process of making proteins from the data contained in genes. Transcription, which involves the synthesis of a complementary RNA strand, and translation, which involves the reading of the RNA code by a group to generate proteins, are the two primary phases in this process.

4. Transmission Patterns 

In order to project the possibility of specific features or genetic illnesses in offspring, it is essential to understand inheritance patterns. Simple inheritance patterns, such as dominant, recessive, and co-dominant features, are explored by Mendelian genetics. Additionally, knowledge of genetic diseases like sickle cells and cystic fibrosis aids in early detection and treatment.


The “Molecular Basis of Inheritance” is an intriguing subject that reveals the processes behind the continuation of life. Aspiring medical students can successfully answer related questions on the NEET test by having a solid understanding of DNA, genes, replication, and protein synthesis. Continue your research and education, and you’ll easily pass your biology exam.

The keys to success are practice and an understanding of the fundamental ideas. I wish you well as you get ready for the NEET!